close

  • Faithful to my Homeland, the Republic of Poland

     

  • ROLE OF POLISH OFFICERS IN THE FORMATION OF THE BELGIAN ARMY IN THE 1830'S.

  • The Attitude of Belgium towards the Polish November Uprising.

     

    In 1815, the Congress of Vienna decided to unite Belgium, at that time occupied by France, to Holland, ignoring the wishes of the Belgians. Religious differences between the inhabitants of the northern and southern Netherlands and a growing dissatisfaction with Dutch rule brought about an uprising in Brussels on September 25, 1830 against the Dutch reign. It was the next revolutionary outbreak, after the July revolution in France, and was delivered against the diplomatic order set in 1815. The mediation of Great Britain prevented further military actions, and on October 4, 1830 Britain and France guaranteed the neutrality and independence of Belgium. Nevertheless, the new state had a feeling of being in danger from both Holland and the Holy Alliance, whose leader was Russia-a principal opponent of political changes in Europe. The eruption of an uprising in the Kingdom of Poland, aimed at the tsar, was a distraction and prevented the intervention of Russia's army in the Belgian Revolt. The November Uprising in Poland weakened the defenders of the ancien regime, increasing the Belgians' chances of permanent emancipation. The Poles grew to be the natural allies of the Belgians and they gained at once their sympathy.

    The Belgian press, during the entire Polish-Russian war, was carefully observing the course of battles, demonstrating great affinity towards Poles. Public opinion, moulded by journalists reacted with indignation at the atrocities of the tsarist army and the support given to them by the Prussians. It viewed with delight all, even insignificant, successes of the Poles, however it did not hide concerns that they were fighting in seclusion; doomed to failure in a war with the most powerful state of Europe.

    The Belgians used the November Uprising to enhance their position while negotiating an administrative and political structure for their state. Although, eventually they would accept a monarchy and territorial concessions, they were granted their own independent country.   Great Britain and France agreed to send their armies to Belgium in case of any external threats. The Belgians realized that the battles waged by the Poles also were of great significance because it had prevented the Holy Alliance from aiding the Dutch. After the collapse of the November Uprising, the Belgians repaid the Poles by receiving Polish émigrés into the Belgian army, in spite of Russian protests and pressure.

     

    Polish officers in the Belgian army

    During the years 1815-1830, the Dutch army enforced an ethnic policy that consisted of limiting the number of officers of Belgian nationality (e.g. in the artillery corps there were only 39 Belgians out of 329 officers of the Dutch nationality). Consequently, after declaring its independence, Belgium did not have enough staff officers necessary for the making of the army. A continuous threat from the Holy Alliance, and also from Holland made the Belgian politicians aware of a need for the rapid enhancement of its army. The 1831 ten-day campaign waged by the Dutch army ended up with a total defeat of the Belgians and an absolute catastrophe was avoided only due to the intervention of the French army.

    On April 11, 1831, the National Congress issued a decree allowing the government to recruit artillery officers of foreign nationality, however as a consequence of the lost campaign on September 22, 1831 King Leopold I issued a decree permitting a recruitment of the necessary number of foreign officers of all types. The decree was in force until a peace treaty with Holland was reached on April 19, 1839.

    Apart from the French, the most numerous group of foreigners employed in the Belgian army were Poles. In February 1832 King Leopold I recommended Le Hon, the Extraordinary Envoy and Plenipotentiary Minister to Paris, to ignore the position of Russia, Prussia and Austria, acting for Holland, and recruit Polish generals staying in France. By

    Welcome of Polish immigrants in Belgium,
    lithography from the 30s. of the nineteenth century.

    contacting with the important representatives of the Polish immigration in Paris, the king wanted to sound out the possibility of taking Polish soldiers and officers to serve in the Belgian army. It was hoped to recruit roughly 2000 officers and soldiers of the cavalry and artillery of Polish origin, included, among them, Gen. Wojciech Chrzanowski and Colonel Ignacy Kruszewski. Belgium was lacking trained officers to train cadres as well as soldiers (there were only 8000 instead of the 12000 planned), a project to create a Polish legion was established. However, the king of France Louis Philippe did not agree to officially recruit the Poles staying in France to the Belgian army. He was fearful of the position of Prussia, Austria and Russia in regards to a Polish formation on the side of the Belgian army.

    For fear of repression from the tsarist authorities, many Poles sought shelter in Belgium. There were four depots (dépôts) created for them in Ypres, Nieuport, Ostende and Huy. The Belgian authorities started to recruit Poles who had valuable experience from the war with Russia. Within time, officers without any work, who initially settled down in other countries, started to flood into the ranks. They professed their loyalty to Leopold I; however they maintained their orders and seniority from the Polish army. It is assessed that, in spite of the discontent of some countries, many Polish officers and non-commissioned officers of all types were in the service of the Belgian army.

    By threatening to not sign the treaty, and then blocking the regulating of diplomatic relations, the Russians tried to prevent the recruiting Poles and demand their removal from the Belgian army. Austria and Prussia exerted similar pressures. They achieved an apogee on July 4, 1839 when they suspended diplomatic relations with Belgium as a result of the nomination of Gen. Jan Skrzynecki as the Belgian commander-in-chief. A compromise was eventually reached; General Skrzynecki did not acquire the post but rather served at the disposal of the Belgian government. Belgian-Russian relations were finally normalized in 1853, only after the end of the service of the Poles.

     

    General Jan Skrzynecki

    General Jan Zygmunt Skrzynecki was the most famous officer serving in the Belgian army where he rose to a high ranking position.

    General of the division, Jan Zygmunt Skrzynecki (1786-1860)

    He was born on  February 8, 1786 in Zebrak in the Łuków county [1]. At the age of 20 years he started his military service entering the first infantry regiment of the army of the Duchy of Warsaw. As a result of his skills and personal courage he was promoted very quickly: sergeant on January 7, 1807, senior sergeant on February 12, 1809, and lieutenant on November 16. For his merits in the war with Austria in 1809 he was honoured with the Order of Virtuti Militari and acquired the title of captain. In 1811 he tried unsuccessfully to be moved to the diplomatic service. A year later he took part in the march of the Grand Army to Moscow after which he was promoted to major.  He fought, at the side of Napoleon; in the campaigns of 1813 and 1814 (he rescued Bonaparte in the battle at Arcis-sur-Aube for which he was awarded the Legion of Honour). After the defeat of Napoleon he entered the army of the Kingdom of Poland being assigned to the elite battalion of grenadiers. He was promptly promoted to lt. colonel, and in 1818 to colonel. Later, he was nominated commander of the eighth infantry regiment. After the outbreak of the November Uprising, he was assigned to command a brigade, and later an infantry division. On February 3, 1831 he became general of brigade, and two weeks later he was chosen commander-in-chief for the Polish Army. He was accused of missing an opportunity of breaking the corps of the Russian guard, for lack of the strategic vision and initiative. He was dismissed from his post on August 12, and five days later he was dismissed from the Polish army.

    After the collapse of the uprising, he emigrated to the West and became involved in politics. Initially he did not accept a proposal to serve in the Belgian army, but he entered it eventually on December 28, 1838 at the rank of general of the division. The Belgian authorities planned to assign him to the position of commander-in-chief. Pressure from Austria and Prussia thwarted these plans, and Skrzynecki did not acquire the post. However, he became an un-official advisor to the crown and wound up having a great influence on the development of the Belgian army. On October 6, 1848 he left the army and before long he returned to Poland. He settled down in Krakow, where on January 12, 1860 he died. He was buried in the Rakowicki graveyard.

     

    Biographies of several Polish officers servicing in the Belgian army

     

    Leopold Ludwik Beber - (26 November 1803, Wingrany or Kalisz - 1849, Genoa) he acquired the rank of lieutenant of the infantry during the November Uprising; he entered the Belgium army on January 25, 1839 as lieutenant; he was assigned to the tenth regiment of  line infantry on January 28, 1839; he was naturalized on July 9, 1842; he was dismissed on May 4, 1845; he entered the Piedmontese army at the end of 1848 or 1849.

    [Armand] Brochowski- (???? - died after 1862) he acquired the rank of lieutenant of the infantry of the second regiment during the November Uprising; he was officer of the cavalry in the Belgian army in 1832-1853; he rose to the rank of major.

    Teofil Czarnowski (Czarnomski) - (23 November 1809, Zagościniec - 10 June 1842, Liège) he acquired the rank of lieutenant of  artillery during the November Uprising; he serviced in the Belgian army (the second battalion of the siege artillery) at the rank of sub-lieutenant starting on August 30, 1832; he was in the second regiment of the artillery starting on April 1, 1832; he was taken to the foundry of arms on October 13, 1834 in Liege; he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant on December 6, 1834.

    Kazimierz Daszkiewicz - (born ???? - died ????) he rose to the rank of sub-lieutenant of  artillery of the sixth regiment in the November Uprising; in the years 1839-1842 he was in the Belgian service at the rank of lieutenant of the infantry; he entered the Belgian army on January 25, 1839.

    Adolf Paweł Dembiński - (13 July 1809, Marginiszki - 1881, Hondelange, Belgium) he rose to the rank of sub-lieutenant (in ranks of the sixth regiment) during the November Uprising; he was accepted into the Belgian army (during the war with Holland) on July 1832 at the rank of lieutenant for the first infantry regiment; 5 July 1837 he was promoted to captain of the second class; he was dismissed on 10 August 1839.

    Bolesław Dulfus - (6 January 1812, Częstochowa - 1881, Genoa) he rose to the rank of lieutenant of the infantry during the November Uprising; he was accepted into the Belgian army (the first regiment of the line infantry) at the rank of sub-lieutenant on 8 September, 1832; he fought against Holland in 1832; he left the army in 1840.

    Antoni Aleksander Froelich (Frölich) - (12 January 1806, Krakow - 24 October 1847, Antwerp) he rose to the rank of captain of the second class of artillery (in the fourth battalion of the light horse artillery); from 1832 he served in the Belgian army (he was accepted at the rank of a captain).

    Józef Kalasanty Godebski - (7 March 1803, Warsaw - 11 March 1868, Brussels) he rose to the rank of captain of the infantry (in the third grenadiers regiment) during the November Uprising; he entered the Belgian army at the rank of captain of the fifth regiment of line infantry (Ghent) on 25 January, 1839; he was a lecturer of math sciences for officers and soldiers of the fifth regiment of the line infantry; he received Belgian citizenship on 18 January, 1849; he was in service until 23 April, 1862; he was dismissed at the rank of major.

    Franciszek Gordaszewski - (1799, Lubin - 4 April 1870, Varenne) he rose to the rank of lieutenant of the second regiment of  line infantry during the November Uprising; he entered the Belgian army at the rank of captain of the second class in the eighth regiment of the line infantry on 25 January, 1839; he was dismissed on 28 April, 1842.

    [probably Maurycy] Count Grabowski - (born ???? - died ????) He rose to the rank of captain of the second regiment of mounted riflemen (carabinier-strzelcow konnych) during the November Uprising; in Belgium, he entered the first regiment of cuirassiers at the rank of captain of the second class on 11 June, 1832; he was promoted to the rank of captain of the first class on 17 May, 1835.

    Stanisław Egbert Koźmian - (21 April 1811, Wronów - 23 April 1885, Poznań) he rose to the rank of sub-lieutenant of artillery during the November Uprising; he was a volunteer in siege of the citadel in Antwerp in 1832.

    Ignacy Marceli Kruszewski - (6 January 1799, Lusławice - 25 December 1875, Gogołów) he was in the November Uprising (he was lieutenant in 1830, and colonel of the cavalry starting on July 1831); he entered Belgian service at the rank of colonel in 1832 (confirmed on 30 April, 1832); he was commander of the second regiment of mounted riflemen (1832-1839) and the temporary commander of the Second Brigade of  Cavalry in the Division of the Light Cavalry; he obtained Belgian citizenship in 1841; he was promoted to general major on 21 July, 1842; he was commander of the First Cavalry Brigade (1839-1848); he was honoured with the Cross of Leopold on 23 September, 1835 and the Officer Cross of Leopold on 3 March, 1846; he went on leave in 1848 to join the uprising in the Grand Duchy of Poznan; after coming back to Belgium he was again in command of the First Cavalry Brigade; he was given a temporary command of a Cavalry Division on 30 December, 1848; he resigned on 29 July, 1852; he was honoured with a Cross for Seniority on 8 March, 1860. [SBOPL, part II, p. 373]

    Księżopolski [Xiezopolski] - probably Józef (born ???? - died ????) he rose to the rank of lieutenant of the fourth regiment during the November Uprising; he was accepted into the Belgian army at the rank of lieutenant on 25 January, 1839.

    Edward Lange - (25 May 1812, Lenarczyce - 2 October 1879, Florence) he rose to  the rank of sub-lieutenant of infantry in the fourth regiment of the line infantry during the November Uprising; he was accepted into the Belgian army on 25 January, 1839 at the rank of sub-lieutenant; he was assigned to the first regiment of the line infantry on 28 January, 1839; he resigned on 8 December, 1843;  he then joined the Ottoman Army; he fought in Garibaldi's Army of Red Shirts during the wars for Italian unification; he entered the Piedmontese army in 1866.

    Stanisław Kajetan Leszczyński - (23 April 1810, Kalisz - ????) he rose to the rank of captain of cavalry during the November Uprising; He joined the Belgian Army on 4 June 1832; he was given the rank of  captain of staff of the second class (during the war with Holland); he was captain of the first class on 25 June, 1835; he became inactive on 31 December, 1840; he received naturalization on 15 January, 1841; he returned to service on 29 September, 1841; he was expelled from the army as a deserter on 19 June, 1844.

    Konstanty Linowski - (18 July 1807, Turowice - 8 September 1858, Paris) he was in the diplomatic service during the November Uprising, he later was adjutant to the commander-in-chief at the rank of sub-lieutenant; he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant on 21 September, 1831; 28 August, 1832 he joined the Belgian army at the rank of captain of the second class (during the war with Holland); he was adjutant to the  General Headquarters on 29 August, 1832;  31 May, 1838 he was made captain of the first class; from 2 December 1839 he served in the military archives; he was eventually accepted into the Belgian army on 28 May, 1841; he was promoted to major on 18 July, 1845, he was assigned as chief of staff for a division of  light cavalry on 4 October 1847, chief of staff for a division of heavy cavalry from 30 December, 1848, and chief of staff of the first territorial division and the first infantry division from 9 February, 1850; he was honoured with the Order of Leopold I on 20 July, 1846; he became inactive on 4 April, 1852 and pensioned off on 21 March, 1853.

    Wilhelm Malczewski - (8 October 1804, Beleck - 1849, Irkuck) he served in the November Uprising at the rank of lieutenant; he was accepted into the Belgian army at the rank of lieutenant of  infantry (the seventh regiment of  line infantry.) on 25 January, 1839; due to  illness he became incative on 29 October, 1841; he returned to service on 1 August, 1843; he was assigned to the first regiment of riflemen on 4 August, 1843; he became inactive again on 11 January, 1844; he resigned on 18 October, 1845.

    Leon Mazurkiewicz - (1809, Borów - 16 August 1846, Mons) he served in the November Uprising at the rank of sub-lieutenant; he served in the Belgian army from 1832-1846 at the rank of lieutenant for the second regiment.

    Ignacy Michałowski - (31 July 1805, Moskoszew - 5 October 1895, Warsaw) he rose to the  rank of lieutenant in the light cavalry; he entered the Belgian army on 30 August, 1832 (during the war with Holland); he was assigned to the first regiment of the artillery on 1 April, 1836; he was captain of the second class on 30 July, 1837; he received naturalization on 12 January, 1842; he was re-accepted into the Belgian army on 3 June, 1842; he became captain of the first class on 8 June, 1842; he was assigned to the fourth regiment of artillery on 1 July, 1842 and then assigned to the first regiment of artillery on 8 October, 1844; he became inactive on 4 April, 1852; he was named honourable major of artillery on 5 January, 1857.

    Jan Nepomucen Młodecki - (13 July 1804 or 12 July 1806, Gromadzice - 12 September 1883, Krakow) he rose to the rank of captain of the infantry during the November Uprising (in the eleventh regiment of the line infantry); he was accepted at the rank of lieutenant into the Belgian army on 25 January, 1839; he was assigned to the third regiment of line infantry on 28 January, 1839; he was dismissed on 14 February, 1839; he later entered the French army and French National Guard during the war with the Prussians in 1870-1871.

    Karol Neuman - (1805 or 1 February 1806, Sołomka on Wołyn or Równo - ????) he rose to the rank of sub-lieutenant of cavalry during the November Uprising (in the first regiment of the Mazurian cavalry, though earlier he had served in the infantry); he was accepted at the rank of lieutenant into the Belgian army on 25 January, 1839; he was assigned to the thirteenth regiment of reserves on 28 January, 1839; he was assigned to the seventh regiment of  the line infantry on 18 April, 1839; he was dismissed on 11 August, 1842.

    Eugeniusz Kazimierz Oborski - (4 March 1812, Brwilno or Brywitno - 20 September 1880, Miłosław) he rose the rank of sub-lieutenant of cavalry during the November Uprising (in the second regiment of Krakowian Cavalry (Krakus)); he was accepted into the Belgian army on 25 January, 1839; he was assigned to the thirteenth regiment of reserves on 28 January, 1839; he was assigned to the seventh regiment of line infantry on 18 June 1839; he was reassigned to the reserves on 22 December, 1842; he resigned from the reserves at his own request on 27 September, 1844; he entered the French army in 1856.

    Józef Krystyn Ostrowski - (19 May 1811, Ujazd - 4 July 1882, Lausanne) he rose to the rank of sub-lieutenant during the November Uprising (in the fourth battalion of the horse artillery); he was sub-lieutenant of the Belgian artillery from 1832-1836; he participated in the siege of the citadel in Antwerp; he was assigned to Liege; he resigned on 17 November, 1836.

    Tomasz [Count   ?] Ostrowski - (19 May 1810, Warsaw - ????) he rose to the rank of sub-lieutenant of the cavalry during the November Uprising (in the fifth regiment of mounted riflemen); he was a captain of the Second Class in the Belgian cavalry from 1832-1837; he  served in the second regiment; he resigned on 12 March 1837.

    Zygmunt Patkowski - (1800, Wołczyn - 4 April 1878, Schaarbeck) he rose to the rank of lieutenant of infantry during the November Rising (in the fourth regiment of line infantry); he was accepted into the Belgian army at the rank of lieutenant on 27 July, 1832 (during the war with Holland); he resigned on 20 August, 1837; he returned to service on 27 January, 1839 at the rank of lieutenant; he was assigned to the eighteenth regiment (a reserve regiment) on 30 January, 1839, he was shifted to the third regiment of  riflemen on 8 October, 1841; he was assigned to the first regiment of line infantry on 29 October, 1841; he became inactive on 4 April, 1852; on 21 March, 1853 he pensioned off.

    Aleksander Pausza - (10 November 1805, Dubno - ????) he rose to the rank of sub-lieutenant during the November Uprising (in the Lithuanian-Russian Legion); he was accepted into the Belgian army at the rank of sub-lieutenant on 25 January, 1839; he was assigned to the thirteenth reserve regiment on 25 January, 1839; he was shifted to the seventh regiment of  line infantry on 18 April, 1839; he resigned on 14 February, 1843.

    Count Bernard Potocki - (born ???? - died ????) he served at the rank of adjutant to the commander of the second corps of the cavalry of General Łubieński during the November Uprising (Earlier he had received gradual promotions from sergeant major to captain of the cavalry by 25 May, 1831); he served in the Belgian army at the rank of captain of the cavalry from 5 December, 1832; he served in requisitions and supplies; he was assigned to the staff of the first division on 6 December, 1832; he resigned on 24 June, 1839.

    Prot Feliks Prószyński - (1799, Łoszyca Mała - 19 January 1849, Ghent) he rose to the rank of sub-colonel of cavalry during the November Uprising; he was accepted into the Belgian army at the rank of sub-colonel of staff (honorary) on 31 March, 1832; he was sent to France in order to recruit Polish officers to the Belgian army; at the same time he was in charge of verifying Polish officers accepted into the Belgian army and vouched for them; he was assigned to the Belgian Central Headquarters on 13 September, 1832; he was confirmed by Leopold I to a sub-colonel vacancy on 18 August, 1836; he was commander of staff of the observation corps of Luxembourg on 13 October, 1838; he took part in the war with Holland in 1839; from 18 June, 1839 he was commander of staff of the third territorial division (Liege); from 23 November 1842 he was commander of staff of the first territorial division (Ghent); he was honoured with the Legion of Honour  under a decree of Louis Philippe of France on 23 January, 1833 and the cross of Leopold I on 21 December, 1843; he was promoted to colonel in 1845.

    Józef Purzycki - (8 December 1804, Mimote (Lithuania) - ???) he rose to the rank of captain (during the November Uprising in the Lithuanian-Wołyń Legion; he entered the Belgian army (a regiment of cuirassiers) at the rank of lieutenant on 4 June, 1832; he was assigned to the second regiment on 8 July, 1834; he resigned on 6 September, 1834.

    Leopold Raczyński - (15 November 1806, Smotrycz - 25 December 1879, Śrem) he rose to  the rank of sub-lieutenant of cavalry during the November Uprising (in the second regiment of mounted riflemen); he entered the Belgian army at the rank of veterinarian of the second class in the second regiment of mounted riflemen (Namur) on 20 October, 1835; he was a sub-lieutenant of cavalry on 21 December, 1839; he was given naturalization on 12 January, 1842; he was promoted lieutenant on 9 April, 1850; he was made inactive on 4 April, 1852; on 21 March, 1853 he was pensioned off; he returned to Poland (Galicia) in 1863.

    Modest Rottermund - (15 June 1808, Pustomyty - ????) he was a sub-lieutenant in the  Krakus Cavalry during the November Uprising; he was honoured with a gold cross; he entered the Belgian army (the first regiment of infantry, Ghent) at the rank of lieutenant on 1 June, 1832; he was given naturalization on 12 January, 1842; he was formally accepted into the Belgian army on 3 June, 1842; he was promoted to captain of the second class on 7 August, 1844, he resigned on 7 August, 1844.

    Antoni Rychlicki - (15 November 1800, Pechreby - 10 January 1840, Tournhout) he rose to the rank of sub-lieutenant of the artillery during the November Uprising; he was accepted into the Belgian army on 25 January, 1839 at the rank of sub-lieutenant; he was assigned to the fifteenth reserve regiment on 28 January, 1839; he was shifted to the third regiment of line infantry on 18 June, 1839.

    Count Władysław [Ladislas] Zamoyski - (born ???? - died ????) he was the son of Stanisław and Zofia of Czartoryski; he was lieutenant in the first regiment of the infantry (the regiment of the Oran Duchy); he was the adjutant of the Russian Grand Duke Constantine in 1830; he was dismissed by Grand Duke and became an  adjutant to General Chłopicki and commander of the second corpus of the cavalry; he was honoured with the Military Cross after the battle at Wawer on 19 February, 1831; after the battle, he was promoted to the rank of sub-colonel  on 1 April for breaking the Russian centre, capturing 3 infantry standards  and taking captive more than 1000 soldiers; in this attack Count Zamoyski was twice wounded; he returned to service at the rank of commander of  staff; he fought in the battle in Ostrołęka; he was nominated commander of  staff in the new-formed corps of Ramorino on 1 July, 1831;  he was promoted to the rank of colonel before he was 28 years old; he joined the Belgian army on 5 December, 1832 where he served in requisitions and supplies without any salary; he formally joined the Belgian army at the rank of colonel; he was assigned the position of  commander of General Headquarters and participated in siege of the citadel in Antwerp; he completed serving in the Belgian army on 24 June, 1839; he entered the Papal army of Pius IX, together with 60 other Polish officers, in 1846, then the army of Piedmont, the Hungarian army, the Polish legion in Serbia and then Turkey; he returned to France only to return to Turkey at the outbreak of the Crimean War; in Turkey he was given the rank of general where he started forming Polish units of the light cavalry (Cossack).

    Other Polish officers serving in the Belgian army:

    Czech, infantryman

    Dąbrowski, (Adam ?) - infantryman

    Captain Idzikowski, (Tadeusz ?)

    Jastrzembski (Jastrzębski) - doctor

    Karski

    Kleczowski - (major 1853, later in service of the British army in China where he died in 1867 in Amoy) - cavalryman

    Lubienicki - cavalryman

    Luboradzki (Józef ?) - artilleryman

    Podhorodeński - cavalryman

    Rzewuski (Ferdynand? Konstanty?) - cavalryman

    Sałkowski, infantryman

    Saint-Cyr Léonard de - cavalryman

    Sulikowski - doctor

    Szopowicz - artilleryman

    Sobieski - artilleryman

    Count Wołodkiewicz - cavalryman

    Zabiełło - cavalryman

    Zaborowski - sub-lieutenant of the infantry

    Zawisza-Czarny (the Black) - artilleryman

    Zboiński - artilleryman

    Żaba [Zaba] - cavalryman

     

    Edited: Mikołaj Kubacki and Wojciech Markert MILITARY OFFICE OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH

    Dr. David Stefancic

    Saint Mary's College

     

    Selective bibliography

     

    Bielecki Robert: Dictionary of officers of November Uprising, Part 1-3, Warsaw, 1995-1998

    Marzena Charles:  Les Officers Polonais dans L Armie Belge apres 1830, Brussels, 1931

    Władysław Zajewski (ed.): November Uprising 1830-1831. Internal history. Militaries. Europe and the Uprising, Warsaw, 1980

    Tarczyński Marek: Generalisations on the November Uprising, Warsaw 1980


     


    [1]              It is a unit of territorial administration and local government in Poland.